Hi everyone!

My name is Ester and this week I was the translator of the group.

I have selected the next five concepts that were, from my point of view, the most important ones of this task:

• Map projection: it is a graphic tool that is used to represent the surface of the Earth on a flat map. In these maps cartographers turn a three-dimensional reality into a two-dimensional one which involves converting the angular coordinates (latitude and longitude) into Cartesian coordinates in order to represent the position of the points in the map.On the other hand, there are lots of different map projections that represent the world surface in distinct ways. However, it doesn’t exist any perfect map projection since all of them distort the reality in different ways (area, shape, distance and direction)
• Mercator map projection: This type of map projection was created by Gerardus Mercator in 1569 and his main purpose was being a navigation tool. Why for navigating? Because at that time many of the cartographers and explorers used elliptical projections that, although they were accurate, they supposed a difficulty for navigators since they had to recalculate constantly the coordinates as they moved. So the main advantage of this map is that the loxodromes (lines crossing all the meridians at a constant angle) are represented as straight lines which is very useful at the time of going across long distances by ship. On the other hand, it distorts the Earth’s poles and landmasses that are close to the equator. This makes that some areas, like Greenland and Europe, appear much bigger than other places that are close to the equator, like Africa.
• Robinson map projection: it was created by Arthur H. Robinson in 1963 because of a request from a commercial atlas company. In this projection the Earth is shown within an ellipse with a flat top and bottom. The lines of latitude are parallel to the equator, but lines of longitude are elliptical arcs.On the other hand, the areas are represented properly but the distances and the directions are distorted. The distortion is more severe close to the poles but it decreases as we distance ourselves from them.
• Azimuthal map projection: it is a kind of map that projects the globe onto a plane, so it is also called a “plane projection”. This projection produces a circular map with a chosen point that is tangent to the flat surface as its center. When this point is either the Earth’s poles, parallels appear as concentric circles and meridians as straight lines. Then, this projection has distortions increasing away from the central point and they are smaller in the places close to the point.
• Scavenger hunt: it is a game or an activity in which the contestants have to compete between each other in order to see who can get first all the specific items from a list. It can be made in different and creative ways. A very famous one is the Internet scavenger hunt, which consists on visiting websites and finding clues in order to solve puzzles.This kind of activity allows the students to improve and practice their reading and comprehension skills while they have fun.

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