Task 10: Schools that learn

Coordination´s structures & Complexity theory and changes. (Mª. T. González and Complexity)

Complexity theory says that all the structures are related among each other and they should be coordinated to improve the organization of a school, setting changes whenever they are needed in order to obtain a better functioning. Mª. T. González in her text explains that with the relationships among teachers, they can exchange knowledge to improve organization, and also coordinate themselves to make the necessary changes.

Diversity and redundancy & Schools that learn. (Complexity theory and A. Bolívar, schools that learn)

Schools learn due to the demands of external factors (such as politics or educational laws) that require a renovation in their organization. Schools have to learn to implement new ideas that could cover these demands so, they are useful. That´s in relation to diversity and redundancy because if every suggestion, idea or proposal was implemented, the school would be in a state in chaos. Therefore, complex organizations go through different processes of evaluation, which creates diversity of new practise, ideas and systems. Other innovations and longstanding practices or ideas become redundant if they can´t adapt well to the new approach.

Teacher and Students & Internal Factor. (Connections and relationships and A.Bolívar, internal factors):

The organizations do not learn just to learn, but the main objective of the schools is that have a positive impact, inside the classroom and the school itself, in the educational experiences of the students. It is not enough to redesign the organizational structure and the relationships among teachers if that does not help to improve the results and increase the commitment with the student´s learning. All of this matters in the relationship between teachers and students.

Deterministic and Randomness & bussiness origins. (Complexity and Bolivar):

The organizations that learn have been treated from diverse disciplinary perspectives. While some of them highlight the dimension of internal development of the organization (which is related to the deterministic), others highlight the learning depending on the demands of the environment, judging that organizational learning to be more efficient than its competitors or to adapt faster to changes in the environment (which is related to randomness).

Teaching teams & Learning in groups and teams. (Mª. T. González and A. Bolívar)

This relationship can be seen between the texts of A. Bolívar and Mª. T. González. Both of them agree with the fact that teachers are elements of the organizations that are coordinated among each other and from that they obtain new knowledge in order to improve their organization and efficiency.

Peers & the structure of coordination. (Mª. T. González and Relationships and Connections)

This relationship can be seen in the article of Teresa González and in the Relationships and Connections. The relationship is based on the students establish relationships anmong them within the school environment and Teresa explains that the teachers also can be peers so that their work is coordinated and they can exchange views.


Task 9: Leadership styles

Speech of our candidate:

Hi, my name is Alejandra I’m 36 years old and I’m graduated in Primary education at Harvard and I have a doctorate in pedagogy at the University of Oxford.

I’m standing to be the new headmaster of the school St Patrick because I have been working there for the last five years and I have observed that there are a lot of things that can be improved.

St Patrick it is located in a slum on the outskirts of the city. It is known for having a high ethnic diversity, which could be very positive but due to the bad management of this school has taken it to a huge division of the ethnic groups preventing to establish relationships between them. All that has caused a bad environment inside the classroom and many conflicts among the students.

Our proposal to avoid this stratification between ethnic groups would be the following one:

Create a series of extracurricular activities that allow interaction between everyone to realize that they share more similarities than differences. For example, activities related to sports in which students have to learn to create teams and learn to coordinate, also that they can socialize in the locker room, breaks etc.

Moreover, we want promote group work being the components randomly selected by the teacher to avoid the same groups as usual.

Another problem that has resulted from this situation is absenteeism as we have observed that there are students who despite wanting to learn they do not tolerate confrontational classroom environment.

What we propose is to create an attractive environment for students by conducting educational projects in each of the subjects that are entertaining and thus to help motivation and enthusiasm for learning and attending to the school by students.

Moreover, not only we want to limit ourselves to solve problems but we want to bring new ideas and changes to renew this school.

For example, we consider it very important the collaboration among employees so we need to promote a friendly atmosphere, companionship and motivation among teachers. We propose that teachers live together once a month in different environments: hostels, mountains, beaches etc.

In addition, because for us it is essential to exchange ideas and to get feedback from our students, we want that at the beginning of each trimester students fulfill a survey in which they will measure their satisfaction with the centre and will be encouraged to make suggestions to improve the school dynamics.

Also, to encourage the participation of the teaching staff in decision-making, weekly meetings will be established where teachers exchange new ideas and suggestions with the management team to resolve conflicts that have been observed and to improve the operation of the centre.

In conclusion, if we all work together, everything can go forward.

Thank you very much.


Here you can see our candidate profile in Fakebook:


Our little projects: 


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Connection teacher-student

Martin was a child that felt misunderstood at each school he stepped on. Any teacher could understand how that child, with such an ordinary appearance, was unable to follow the lesson at the same rate as his peers and ended attributing it to a little desire to work. Gradually, the treatment that was given to the child by the teachers became increasingly cold and tough while his marks got worse simultaneously. Martin’s parents, facing that situation, decided to move him to another school again with the hope of finding a place where they knew how to help their child. The first day at his new school ,Martin prepared himself to suffer once more the complaints from the teachers about his behavior and his inability to carry out the tasks, however, this time everything was different. His new teacher, Nicholass welcomed warmly his new pupil and once he spent some time with him and analyzed his behavior, he realized that Martin was not like the others. He discovered that the child had a disorder known as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), and proposed himself to accompany him on his way to school success, establishing a relationship of support and understanding, in which Martin could see in him not only a teacher but also a person he could trust on.

Martín era un niño de 8 años que se sentía incomprendido en cada escuela que pisaba. Ningún profesor podía entender cómo aquel niño, de apariencia tan normal y corriente, era incapaz de seguir la lección al mismo ritmo que sus compañeros y acababan achacándolo a sus pocas ganas de trabajar. Poco a poco, el trato que recibía el niño por parte de los profesores era cada vez más frío y duro mientras que simultáneamente sus notas caían en picado. Los padres de Martín, ante esta situación, decidieron cambiarle una vez más de centro escolar con la esperanza de hallar un lugar en que supieran ayudar a su hijo. El primer día en su nuevo colegio Martín se resignó a sufrir una vez más las quejas de sus profesores respecto a su comportamiento y su incapacidad de realizar las tareas, sin embargo esta vez todo fue distinto. Su nuevo profesor, Nicolás, recibió afectuosamente a su alumno y tras haber pasado un tiempo con él y al analizar su comportamiento, se dio cuenta de que Martín no era como los demás. Descubrió que el niño tenía el conocido TDAH (trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad), y se propuso acompañarlo en su camino al éxito escolar, estableciendo una relación de apoyo y comprensión, en la que Martín viera en él no solo a un profesor sino también una persona en la que confiar.

Connection between peer groups

It was the first day of school of Valentina and she was nervous and expectant to see who would be her new classmates. Once she entered to the classroom, everyone gave her a warm welcome, except a child, Antonio. When she asked to the others about him, the children laughed and replied that he was a freak child who liked to be alone and that never spoke to anyone. As the days passed Valentina started to realize that Antonio was not as different as everyone thought, he just had a lack of self-confidence and that his classmates put more interest in meeting him; and that was what Valentina did. She realized that when the teacher asked for the task to the class, Antonio, despite having it always done, he never dared to speak in front of his peers. So Valentina decided to sit always at his side to give to him some support to talk when he needed it. Gradually, with the small gestures of the girl, the confidence,the desire to go to school, and the marks of Antonio were increasing at the same time as his relationship with the rest of his classmates was improving. Moreover, when they started to meet well Antonio the realized how wrong they were and they apologized to him.

Era el primer día de clase de valentina y esta se encontraba nerviosa y expectante por ver quiénes serían sus nuevos compañeros de clase. Al entrar al aula, todos le dieron una calurosa bienvenida, excepto un niño, Antonio. Al preguntarles a los demás sobre él, los niños se rieron y le contestaron que era un niño rarito al que le gustaba estar solo y que nunca hablaba con nadie. Conforme los días pasaban Valentina se fue dando cuenta de que Antonio no era tan diferente como todos creían, simplemente le faltaba sentir un poco más de confianza en sí mismo y que sus compañeros pusieran más interés en conocerle; y eso fue lo que hizo Valentina. Ésta se dio cuenta de que cuando la profesora pedía la tarea en clase, Antonio, a pesar de tenerla siempre hecha, nunca se atrevía a hablar enfrente de sus compañeros. Así que Valentina decidió estar sentada siempre a su lado, para darle su apoyo para hablar cuando llegara ese momento. Poco a poco, con los pequeños gestos de la niña, Antonio fue ganando confianza y sus ganas de ir al colegio fueron aumentando al igual que su relación con el resto de sus compañeros. Éstos, al empezar a conocerle se dieron cuenta de lo equivocados que habían estado con su compañero y le pidieron perdón, iniciando así una bonita relación de compañerismo.

Connection within the learning process

Valley Bridge high school students waited expectantly the arrival of their new math’s teacher . The teacher, once he had just arrived to class began to rapidly write a series of symbols on the board under the watchful eye of their students. At the end, he explained that the problem he had written on the board would be a challenge to be solved during the rest of the course with the help of their colleagues and if they managed it, they would have an extra score on their stuff. In addition, he told them that during each explanation in class, he would give a clue to solve the problem. Thus, the teacher managed to create an atmosphere of motivation in class. At first, the students tried to solve the problem by their own so that others do not obtain the extra points, but as the deadline was near they realized that they could only achieve the challenge by sharing their knowledge with others, due to the fact that each one of them had different ideas. Finally,working in teams they managed to find the solution.

Los alumnos del instituto Valley Bridge aguardaban expectantes la llegada de su nuevo profesor de matematicas. Éste, nada más llegar a la clase, empezó a escribir frenéticamente una serie de símbolos en la pizarra bajo la atenta mirada de sus alumnos. Al finalizar, les explicó que el problema que había escrito en la pizarra sería un reto que debían resolver durante el resto del curso con la ayuda de los compañeros y que si lo conseguían tendrían una puntuación extra en su materia. Además, les comentó que durante cada explicación que diera en su clase daría una pista para la resolución del problema matemático. De este modo, el profesor consiguió crear un ambiente de motivación en la clase. Al principio, los alumnos decidieron intentar resolverlo cada uno por su cuenta para que así los demás no obtuvieran la puntuación extra, pero a medida que se acercaba la fecha final se dieron cuenta de que sólo lo podrían conseguir compartiendo sus conocimientos con los demás, ya que cada uno tenía diferentes ideas. Finalmente, trabajando todos en equipo consiguieron hallar la solución.

Connection with the classroom

Ryan Smith was one of the most famous professor in the world because of his innovative approach which allowed to continue the learning process of students out of school. This method consisted on classifying students according to the grades obtained in each subject: students with the highest grades in a given subject would be responsible for providing a series of online tutorials to students who had difficulties in this area. For example, if Ryan noted that there was an exceptionally good student with math, he would designate him as tutor thet would be in charge of another student who would have more difficulties in the area. Thanks to this methodology, students not only can obtain better results, but also the relationships between students of different levels would improve.

Ryan Smith fue uno de los profesores más conocidos del mundo debido a su innovador método que permitía continuar el proceso de aprendizaje de los alumnos fuera de la escuela. Este método consistía en clasificar los alumnos según las calificaciones obtenidas en cada materia: los alumnos con las notas más altas en una determinada asignatura serían los encargados de impartir una serie de tutorías online a los alumnos que presentaban dificultades en dicha materia. Por ejemplo, si Ryan observaba que había un alumno excepcionalmente bueno con las matemáticas, le encargaba ser tutor de otro alumno al que le resultara más difícil. Gracias a esta metodología no sólo se conseguía que algunos alumnos obtuvieran mejores resultados sino que además se fomentaban las relaciones entre estudiantes de diferentes niveles.

Connection with learning

In the Oscar’s Science class touched to see the lesson about the different planets that makes the solar system. That same evening, when Oscar arrived to his home, he got down to read with his mum a new book that she was brougth from the library. In this book appeared differents characters and one of them was a marcian. At the first, the word was strange to Oscar and when he asked to his mother, she told him that he called it “marcian” because he came from the planet called Mars. That was the moment that Oscar connected the things that he saw in class with the word that he read at home and he understood without any problem the origin of the character.

En la clase de ciencias de Oscar tocaba ver la lección sobre los diferentes planetas que forman el sistema solar. Esa misma tarde, cuando Oscar llegó a casa se puso a leer junto a su madre un nuevo libro que esta le había traído de la biblioteca, libro en el que aparecían distintos personajes y entre los cuales aparecía un marciano. Al principio a Oscar le extraño esa palabra y tras preguntarle a su madre esta le contestó que se llamaba marciano porque procedía de un planeta llamado Marte. Fue en ese momento que Oscar relaciono lo visto en la lección de clase con la palabra leída en el libro y comprendió sin ningún problema la procedencia de aquel personaje.


Task 4: The dark side of textbooks

Here you can see the comic that we made for this task in English and in Spanish:

English version

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Spanish version

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Also you can find them in the web page of Pixton

English version:


Spanish version:



Finally, here we give you some questions to reflect about textbooks:

Why do we use textbooks instead of ICT? How could ICT improve the teaching process?

What is the relationship between info included on textbooks and government?

Do yo think teachers are slaves of textbooks? Why?

Why do we still use the textbooks taking into account all of the negative aspects that they have?

Why the system forces us to use textbooks? Why teachers would like to use another method?

Why do you think this topic is important for your learning as a future teacher?

Can you give two ideas to learn in a different way?

What would you do as a teacher to change the current use of textbooks in school?



Task 3 (first and second)

This is the first power point that we presented on Wendesday about recycling and taking care of the enviroment.

The feedback our professor gave to us  was quite negative so we changed it and we showed it in class on Monday.

Here you can see our stars explaining our topic for a second time:

First part: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_Z7vOR4dOAPWW5ENzNMY1Y2X2c/view?usp=sharing

Second part: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_Z7vOR4dOAPaThMZTdGS2lnYTA/view?usp=sharing

Our answers in the presentation:

Be enviromentally friendly

The main aim of our topic is that children perceive the environment and the natural resources as a collective heritage, formed by elements that are not everlasting. To achieve that it is important to give them some advice and knowledge related to the environment and the impact that humans have on it.

What is environment ?

Enviroment is living things and what is around them. Environment is a system formed by natural and artificial resources that are interrelated and are modified by human action

What is recycling?

Recycling is the process of taking a product at the end of its useful life and using all or part of it to make another product. Nearly anything we see and use can be recycled.


Reducing the problem, we reduce bad impact on environment. There are two ways of reducing: goods or energy. The aim would be to reduce or to eliminate one-time-used goods


It is based on reusing an object in order to give to it a useful second life. The way of reusing can be changed from fixing the object or doing something creative for a different use.
Tips for recycling in our lifes

Water is a scarce commodity. When you brush your teeth after eating or hands before each meal, you must not forget to close the tap. The world will thank you for saving water.

Turn off the light in the room (bathroom, kitchen, living room, etc.) each time you leave. And it does not take too long with the light. Save electricity.

As resources are limited, share your toys and your school supplies with other children. When you do not use more, pass them to other children.

Recycling is a very fun game is to put everything in the right color bin. There are different containers for each type of waste, according to its material

All these tips are little action we can do to improve our world but it very important we protect and respect the environment, and also respect and care for the people around you.

Let’s play

Now we are going to practice all we have learnt with a game. It consisted in giving to the student some materials that they had to classify by putting them in the diferent dumpsters.


Task 2: Map projection


1.- Purpose

2.- Distortion types

3.- Distortion- Areas that are most distorted?

4.- There is more than one version?

5.- Problems

6.- Socio-Cultural implications of using it as a learning resource


1.- It became the standard map projection for nautical purposes because of its ability to represent lines of constant course is straight segments that conserve the angles with the meridians.

2.- The distorsion type that it has is the area one because distorts the size of objects as the latitude increases from the Equator to the poles, where the scale becomes infinite.

3.- It greatly exaggerates areas in highest latitudes. For example: Greenland appears larger that Africa, Alaska appears larger than Brazil and the Antarctica appears as the biggest continent.

4.-Yes, the transverse Mercator projection.

5.-  Most of the main criticism of the Mercator projection are that it gives people a false impression of the size of the world’s landmasses. Other critics say that this projection and the large size of continents like Europe gave an adventage to the colonial powers because it made them appear larger than they really are. Other problem would be that it has often been used in world maps where other projections would have been more appropriate, this problem has long been recognize even outside.

6.-  As this projection makes the areas bigger than they actually are, it provides the imperialistic activities and it creates an ethnic prejudice against the third world since it places Europe in the middle of the map and it makes smaller Africa.



  1. It was specifically created in an attempt to find a good compromise to the problem of readily showing the whole globe as a flat image.
  2. The Robinson projection has the four different distortions: shape, direction, distance and area.
  3. The greatest distortion occurs near the north and south poles. The range of acceptable distortion in these maps is usually 45 degrees north to south.
  4. No.
  5. This kind of projection isn’t equivalent so it avoids these properties. Distortion close to the poles is severe, but quickly declines to moderate levels moving away from them. The straight parallels imply severe angular distortion at the high latitudes toward the outer edges of the map, a fault inherent in any pseudocylindrical projection.
  6. This type of projection usually uses because makes the world “look right”. Better balance of size and shape of high-latitude lands than other projections.robinson


  1. It is the best one for projecting small scale maps.
  1. It has radial symmetry in the scales and hence in the distortions: map distances from the central point are computed by a function r(d) of the true distance d, independent of the angle; correspondingly, circles with the central point as center are mapped into circles which have as center the central point on the map.
  1. It depends on where the center is fixed. As you go to the edges it is more distorted.
  2. Yes.
  3. You cannot see the whole world at once; it is only useful for one hemisphere.
  4.  These maps are useful for navigation.





We’ve chosen two countries, Italy, in Europe, and Egypt, in Africa, in order to explain an evidence of distortions in the maps within different projections.

In the Robinson projection: In this projection it is clear that Egypt is bigger than Italy so both countries are right represented on it. Although this, Egypt is in the northern hemisphere.

In Mercator projection: Italy occupied a bigger place than it might and Egypt is closer to the Equator line in this projection. There was given importance to Italy and Egypt because this projection was made for sailing giving more importance to colonized countries.

In Azimuthal projection: this projection centre is placed on the equator, and its focus in Africa, in this way Italy and Egypt are in their right positions, with their almost accurate proportions.


In our case, two of us agreed that Mercator Projections was the best one in order to use it in a classroom meanwhile four of us though that the Robinson’s one is the best option to use in the school if we only focus on countries then they can be seen clearer and easier than in the other two. Besides, this projection only has got a distortion in poles and his shape wha it has not got too much important in primary learning.


Our treasure hunt consists on some riddles about the human body and each riddle links with a picture of each part.

To make this treasure hunt more interactive each time children guess a riddle the teacher will give them a paper with a word that is written in Morse. After guessing all the riddles, children will have to have ten papers that they have to translate from Morse to English in order to get a complete sentence that is the final part of the treasure hunt.

In that way, our goal is children learn different things (in this case, human body) in an active way, having fun and if the teachers want they can also work in groups.


Nowadays media and in particular social networks determine our social life. It is a way in which people can obtain acceptance of other people who don’t really know and making us forget what is our own identity.

Here we’ve got two examples of how social networks can make us believe something which does not exist.

Amalia Ulman pretended to have a ‘perfect life’ in order to prove how important are social networks nowadays. Her work was made out of three parts, the first one she pretended to be a ‘sugar baby’, young people who have relationships with wealthy people to get some profits.

The second part, she pretended to be a rude and sexy girl, with a style similar to Kim Kardashian. In this part she became a drug-addicted and finally in the third part she pretended to start a rehab and live a healthy life. All her photos were published on a Gallery of Art due to the impact of her work.

The next example is quite similar, but instead of lying thousand people, a girl called Zilla Van, lied her family and friends telling them she was going on a trip to Asia. She worked as graphic designer and with Photoshop she retouched some photos made in her own home.


Now, we’re going to explain a common distortion. If someone tell us to draw a heart, we use to draw this <3, but we know that this is not the real shape of the heart. And even when know it, we follow doing it in the same way. The teachers teach to our children to draw n tis way and in the centre of the body but we know that is more to the left.


Nowadays media is not neutral since behind them there are some people that have different perspectives that have an influence on the information that they transmit so this information is always subjective and therefore, the reality is distorted.

Something similar occurs with map projections since every researcher (Robinson, Mercator, Azimuthal and so on) had their own point of view about the world and the countries so their maps transmitted distorted realities and people thought that it was all correct.



What type of information map have we used?

The type of information map that we have chosen is the spidergram because we think is quite visual and it shows quite well the connections between all of the concepts.

1.- What is exactly TPACK?

TPACK is a model or a framework of knowledge applicable to a core field (always is related to teaching) and it determines the best way to include technology, content and pedagogy knowledge.

In other words: according to TPACK, it is necessary to interrelate three fields of knowledge ( technology, pedagogy and content) in order to integrate efficiently an activity in a classroom.

2.- What are the most important elements of TPACK and what is the relationship between them?

There are three basic elements in this model:

-Content knowledge: it is the knowledge that a teacher has to have so that he can teach it to the students.

-Pedagogical knowledge: it refers to the different methodologies that a teacher can use in order to explain something.

They are all related between them:

The relationship between pedagogy and content is called pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and it refers to the changes that the lessons experiment when the teacher does his interpretation of the contents.

The relationship between technology and content is called technological content knowledge (TCK) and it refers to how technology limit and condition the content, and vice versa.

The relationship between technology and pedagogy is called technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) and it refers to how teaching and learning can be affected by the technology that the teachers use in order to explain the contents to the students.

3.- How would TPACK be useful for you?

It can be useful at the time of explaining a subject in a lesson because of the variety of the ways to teach something (games, activities…) and besides TPACK is a good way to include ICT in the class so that the students learn in an active way and they have a more complete formation.

4.- Why is this model related to our degree?

TPACK is related to our degree due to the fact that if we want to be a good teacher we don’t only have to have a lot of knowledge about a subject but also to know how to apply different technologies efficiently in the class in order to increase the technological knowledge of students and to know the methodologies that we can use as teachers.


In conclusion we think that this model is very important for all of the future teachers because nowadays the society and the resources are developing in a very high speed so it is important to know how to adapt to the needs and to the characteristics of the society and the model TPACK  help us to know how to attend to that needs in a balanced way, giving importance to the technology, the content and the pedagogy.